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Liu, Y., Nelson, L. D., Bernat, E. M., & Gehring, W. J. (2014). Perceptual properties of feedback stimuli influence the feedback-related negativity in the flanker gambling task. Psychophysiology, 51(8), 7828-788. DOI: 10.1111/psyp.12216.

Grammer, J. K., Carrasco, M., Gehring, W. J., & Morrison, F. J. (2014). Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 93-105.

Hochman, E. Y., Orr, J. M., Gehring, W. J. (2014). Toward a more sophisticated response representation in theories of medial frontal performance monitoring:  the effects of motor similarity and motor asymmetries. Cerebral Cortex, 24(2), 414-425.

Liu, Y., Hanna, G. L., Carrasco, M., Gehring, W. J., & Fitzgerald, K. D. (2013). Altered relationship between electrophysiological response to errors and gray matter volumes in an extended network for error-processing in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human Brain Mapping.  doi: 10.1002/hbm.22240. PMID: 23418104

Carrasco, M., Hong C., Nienhuis, J. K., Harbin, S. M., Fitzgerald, K. D., Gehring, W. J., & Hanna, G. L. (2013). Increased error-related brain activity in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders. Neuroscience Letters, 541, 214-8. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2013.02.01

Carrasco, M., Harbin, S. M., Nienhuis, J. K., Fitzgerald, K. D., Gehring, W. J., & Hanna, G. L. (2013).  Increased error-related brain activity in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder and unaffected siblings. Depression and Anxiety, 30(1), 39-46.

Ferdinand, N. K., Mecklinger, A., Kray, J., & Gehring, W. J. (2012). The processing of unexpected positive response outcomes in the mediofrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(35), 12087-12092. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1410-12.2012.

Hanna, G. L., Carrasco, M., Harbin, S. M., Nienhuis, J. K., LaRosa, C. E., Chen, P., Fitzgerald, K. D., & Gehring, W. J. (2012). Error-related negativity and tic history in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(9), 902-910.

Liu, Y., Gehring ,W. J., Weissman, D. H., Taylor, S. F., Fitzgerald, K. D. (2012). Trial-by-trial adjustments of cognitive control following errors and response conflict are altered in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 3(41), 1-8. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00041.

Gehring, W. J., Liu, Y., Orr, J. M., & Carp, J. (2012). The error-related negativity (ERN/Ne). In S. J. Luck, & E. Kappenman (eds.), Oxford handbook of event-related potential components (pp. 231-291). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bernat, E.M., Nelson, L.D., Steele, V.R., Gehring, W.J., & Patrick, C. J. (2011). Externalizing psychopathology and gain/loss feedback in a simulated gambling task: Dissociable components of brain response revealed by time-frequency analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(2), 352-364.

Mai, X., Tardif, T., Doan, S. N., Liu, C., Gehring, W. J., & Luo, Y-J. (2011). Brain activity elicited by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children. PLoS One, 6(4), e18774.

Stern, E. R., Welsh, R. C., Fitzgerald, K. D., Gehring, W. J., Lister, J. J., Himle, J. A., Abelson, J. L, & Taylor, S. F. (2011). Hyperactive error responses and altered connectivity in ventromedial and frontoinsular cortices in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 69, 583-591. PMID: 21144497.

Liu, C., Tardif, T., Mai, X., Simms, N., Gehring, W. J., & Luo, Y. (2010).  What’s in a name? Brain activities reveal categorization processes differ across languages.  Human Brain Mapping, 31(11), 1786-1801. PMID: 20957725

Stern, E.R., Liu Y., Gehring, W.J;, Lister, J.J., Yin, G., Zhang, J, Fitzgerald, K.D., Himle, J.A,. Abelson, J.L., & Taylor, S.F. (2010). Chronic medication does not affect hyperactive error responses in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychophysiology, 47(5), 913-920.

Anguera, J. A., Seidler, R. D., & Gehring, W. J. (2009). Changes in performance monitoring during sensorimotor adaptation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 102, 1868-1879.

Liu, Y., & Gehring, W. J. (2009). Loss feedback negativity elicited by single- vs. conjoined-feature stimuli. Neuroreport, 20(6), 632-636.

Liu, D., Sabbagh, M. A., Gehring, W. J., & Wellman, H. (2009). Neural correlates of children’s theory of mind development. Child Development, 80(2), 318-326.

Bernat, E. M., Nelson, L. D., Holroyd, C. B., Gehring, W. J., & Patrick, C. J. (2008). Separating cognitive processes with principal components analysis of EEG time-frequency distributions. Proceedings of SPIE, 7074, 7074S 1-10.

Liu, D., Sabbagh, M. A., Gehring, W. J., & Wellman, H. (2009). Neural correlates of children’s theory of mind developmentChild Development.

Taylor, S. F., Stern, E. R., & Gehring, W. J. (2007). Neural systems for error monitoring: Recent findings and theoretical perspectives. The Neuroscientist, 13, 162-172.

Gehring, W. J. (2006). Ordinary minds, extraordinary violence. Science and Theology News, 6 (11/12), 36.

Masaki, H., Takeuchi, S., Gehring, W. J., Takasawa, N., & Yamazaki, K. (2006). Affective-motivational influences on feedback-related ERPs in a gambling task. Brain Research , 1105, 110-121.

Sarter, M., Gehring, W. J., & Kozak, R. (2006). More attention must be paid: The neurobiology of attentional effort. Brain Research Reviews, 51, 145-160.

Taylor, S. F., Martis, B., Fitzgerald, K. D., Welsh, R. C., Abelson, J. L., Liberzon, I., Himle, J. A., & Gehring, W. J. (2006). Medial frontal cortex activity and loss-related responses to errors. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26(15) , 4063-4070.

Bernat, E., Williams, W. J., & Gehring, W. J. (2005). Decomposing ERP time-frequency energy using PCA. Clinical Neurophysiology, 116, 1314-1334 .

Fitzgerald, K. D., Welsh, R. C., Gehring, W. J., Abelson, J.L, Himle, J.A., Liberzon, I., & Taylor, S. F. (2005). Error-related hyperactivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in obsessive compulsive disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 287-294.

Gehring, W. J., & Taylor, S. F. (2004). When the going gets tough, the cingulate gets going. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 1285 – 1287.

Liu, D., Sabbagh, M. A., Gehring, W. J., Wellman, H. M. (2004). Decoupling beliefs from reality in the brain: An ERP study of theory of mind. Neuroreport, 29, 991-995.

Masaki, H., Gehring, W. J., Takasawa, N., Yamazaki, K. (2004). The functional significance of the error-related negativity in action monitoring. Japanese Journal of Physiological Psychology and Psychophysiology, 22(1), 3-18.

Gehring, W. J. & Willoughby, A. R. (2004). Are all medial frontal negativities created equal? Toward a richer empirical basis for theories of action monitoring.

In M. Ullsperger & M. Falkenstein (eds.), Errors, Conflicts, and the Brain. Current Opinions on Performance Monitoring (pp. 14-20). Leipzig : Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. [Note that the arrows in Figure 3 are corrected in this file but were published erroneously in the full volume linked below.] (Full Ullsperger and Falkenstein volume available here: M. Ullsperger & M. Falkenstein (eds.), Errors, Conflicts, and the Brain. Current Opinions on Performance Monitoring. Leipzig : Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.)

Taylor, S. F., Welsh, R. C., Wager, T.D., Luan Phan, K.L., Fitzgerald, K. D., & Gehring, W. J. (2004). A functional neuroimaging study of motivation and executive function. Neuroimage, 21, 1045-1054.

Gehring, W. J., Karpinski, A., & Hilton, J. L. (2003). Thinking about interracial interactions. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 1241-1243.

Gehring, W. J., Bryck, R., Jonides, J., Albin, R., Badre, D. (2003). The mind's eye, looking inward? In search of executive control in internal attention switching. Psychophysiology, 40, 572-585.

Gehring, W. J., & Willoughby, A. R. (2002). The medial frontal cortex and the rapid processing of monetary gains and losses. Science, 295, 2279-2282.


See the feature piece in Science on this study.

Gehring, W. J., & Knight, R. T. (2002). Lateral prefrontal damage affects processing selection but not attention switching. Cognitive Brain Research, 13, 262-279.

Gehring, W. J., & Fencsik, D. E. (2001). Functions of the medial frontal cortex in the processing of conflict and errors. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21(23), 9430-9437.

Gehring, W. J., & Knight, R. T. (2000). Prefrontal - cingulate interactions in action monitoring. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 516-520.

See the comment in Nature Neuroscience on this study by Cohen, Botvinick, and Carter


Gehring, W. J., Himle, J., & Nisenson, L. G. (2000). Action monitoring dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychological Science, 11, 1-6.

Awh, E., & Gehring, W. J. (1999). The anterior cingulate cortex lends a hand in response selection. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 853-854.

Gehring, W. J., & Fencsik, D. (1999). Slamming on the brakes: An electrophysiological study of error response inhibition. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, Washington, D. C., April 11-13, 1999.

Scheffers, M. K., Coles, M. G. H., Bernstein, P., Gehring, W. J., & Donchin, E. (1996). Event-related brain potentials and error-related processing: An analysis of incorrect responses to go and no-go stimuli. Psychophysiology, 33, 42-53

Gehring, W. J., Coles, M. G. H., Meyer, D. E., & Donchin, E. (1995). A brain potential manifestation of error-related processing. In G. Karmos, M. Molnar, V. Csepe, I. Czigler and J. E. Desmedt (Eds.) Perspectives of Event-Related Potentials Research, Journal of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Supplement 44, (pp. 287-296).

Gehring, W. J., & Coles, M. G. H. (1994). "Expectancy and response strategy to sensory stimuli": Comment. Neurology, 44, 2212-2213.

Gehring, W. J., Goss, B., Coles, M. G. H., Meyer, D. E., & Donchin, E. (1993). A neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 4, 385-390.

See technical commentary on this article by Dehaene, Tucker, and Posner in Psychological Science.


Gehring, W. J., Gratton, G., Coles, M. G. H., & Donchin, E. (1992). Probability effects on stimulus evaluation and response processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 198-216.